Define access.Supreme Court doctrines that govern who may sue and the powers of courts to provide redress.
What is an advisory opinion?Judicial ruling in the absence of an actual case or controversy; a ruling in a hypothetical case without bona fide litigants.
Define caseload.Number of cases requiring judicial action at a certain time, or the number of cases acted upon in a given court during a given time period.
What is certification?Rarely used method of appealing to the U. S. Supreme Court by which the lower court formally identifies questions of law for decision. Also, the process by which a federal court sometimes refers a question about state law to a state court and delays deciding the case until the question is answered.

What is exhaustion of remedies?Doctrine that requires persons aggrieved to avail themselves of all administrative remedies before seeking judicial relief.
What is a federal question?Case that contains a major issue involving the U. S. Constitution or U. S. laws or treaties.
Define in forma pauperis.Latin phrase meaning ''in the manner of a pauper.'' In the U.S. Supreme Court, cases brought in forma pauperis by indigent persons are exempt from the Court's usual fees and from some formal requirements.
Define justiciable.Describes controversies that are within the proper jurisdiction of a court and appropriate for judicial resolution.

What is the miscellaneous docket?Term formerly used to refer to the listing of in forma pauperis cases to be heard by the U. S. Supreme Court.
Define Moot.Case that no longer presents a justiciable controversy because the issues involved have become dead.
Original jurisdiction? Jurisdiction in the first instance; commonly used to refer to trial jurisdiction (as compared with appellate jurisdiction). Appellate courts, however, have limited original jurisdiction.
What is a per curiam decision?An unsigned opinion of the court, often quite brief; per curiam is a Latin phrase meaning ''by the court.''

What is a political question?Doctrine that courts will not decide cases involving issues for which a final decision is clearly left to one of the political branches by the Constitution.
What is a ripe case?Case that is ready for court action because the controversy has jelled sufficiently. Courts will not decide an issue before the need to do so.
Who is the solicitor general?Third-ranking official in the U. S. Department of Justice, who conducts and supervises government litigation in the Supreme Court.
What is a special master?Person appointed by a court to hear evidence and submit findings and recommendations based on that evidence. The Supreme Court typically uses special masters in original jurisdiction cases.

What is standing?Requirement that the party who files a law-suit have a legal stake in the outcome.
What is a taxpayer lawsuit?Lawsuit brought by a person who claims standing on the basis of his or her status as a taxpayer. Such standing is only rarely granted.