What is an antecedent variable? | An independent variable that precedes other independent variables in time. |

What is an arrow diagram? | A pictorial representation of a researcher's explanatory scheme. |

What is cross-level analysis? | The use of data at one level of aggregation to make inferences at another level of aggregation. |

What is a cross-tabulation? | also called a contingency table, this array displays the joint frequencies and relative frequencies of two categorical (nominal or ordinal) variables Reference page(s): 59 |

What is a curvilinear relationship? | when the relationship between independent and dependent variables depends on which interval or range of the independent variable; the relationship may change from positive to negative, vice-versa, or lessen or increase in strength/consistency Reference page(s): 65 |

What is a dependent variable? | The phenomenon thought to be influenced, affected, or caused by some other phenomenon. Reference page(s): 50 |

What is a direct relationship? | a relationship that goes in a positive direction (ex: rise in per capita GDP and increase in political rights) Reference page(s): 63 |

What is a directional hypothesis? | A hypothesis that specifies the expected relationship between two or more variables. |

What is ecological inference? | The process of inferring a relationship between characteristics of individuals based on group or aggregate data. |

What is a hypothesis? | A tentative or provisional or unconfirmed statement that can (in principle) be verified. Reference page(s): 49 |

What is an independent variable? | The phenomenon thought to influence, affect or cause some other phenomenon. Reference page(s): 50 |

What is an intervening variable? | A variable coming between an independent variable and a dependent variable in an explanatory scheme. Reference page(s): 58 |

What is an inverse relationship? | relationship that goes in a negative direction (ex: rise in age and decrease in likelihood of supporting gay marriage) Reference page(s): 63 |

What is a line chart? | A popular way to show the relationship between an explanatory variable and an interval-level dependent variable. Values of the explanatory variable are plotted on the x-axis; corresponding values of the dependent variable are plotted on the y-axis. Reference page(s): 63 |

What is a linear relationship? | increase in the independent variable correlates with consistent increase or decrease in the dependent variable Reference page(s): 64 |

What is a mean comparison table? | a table that shows the mean of a dependent variable for cases that have different values on an independent variable Reference page(s): 62 |

What is a negative relationship? | A relationship in which the values of one variable increase as the values of another variable decrease. Reference page(s): 64 |

What is a positive relationship? | A relationship in which the values of one variable increase (or decrease) as the values of another variable increase (or decrease). Reference page(s): 64 |

What is a relationship (a statistical relationship)? | The association, dependence, or covariance of the values of one variable with the values of another variable. |

What is a tautology? | A hypothesis in which the independent and dependent variables are identical, making it impossible to disconfirm. |