Define aggregate-level unit of analysis.Analysis of collections of individual entities, such as states, neighborhoods, or congressional districts.

Reference page(s): 11
What is the alternative-form method?A method of calculating reliability by repeating different but equivalent measures at two or more points in time.

Reference page(s): 17
What is a concept?An idea or mental construct that represents phenomena in the real world

Reference page(s): 6
What is a conceptual definition?A concept's measurable properties and the unit of analysis to which the concept applies

Reference page(s): 7


What is a conceptual dimension?defined by a set of concrete traits of a similar type

Reference page(s): 10
What is a conceptual question?A question expressed using ideas, is frequently unclear and thus is difficult to answer empirically

Reference page(s): 7
What is a concrete question?A question expressed using tangible properties, can be answered empirically

Reference page(s): 7
What is construct validity?the empirical relationships between a measurement and other concepts to which it should be related

Reference page(s): 19


What is content validity?Validity demonstrated by ensuring that the full domain of a concept is measured.
What is a continuous variable?A variable is continuous if it can take an infinite continuum of possible real number values.
What is a Correlation Matrix?A table showing the relationships among discrete measures.
What is Cronbach's alpha?A statistical measure that compares the consistency between pairs of individual items and provides an overall reading of a measure's reliability; a value of one denotes perfect reliability.

Reference page(s): 18


What is a cross-sectional study?A research design in which measurements of incurring differences in the independent variable are used to create quasi-experimental and quasi-control groups; extraneous factors are controlled for by statistical means.

Reference page(s): 18
What is a Dichotomous Variable?A variable having only two categories that for certain analytical purposes can be treated as a quantitative variable.
What is a discrete variable?A variable is discrete if its possible values form a set of separate numbers, such as 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
What is an ecological fallacy?The fallacy of deducing a false relationship between the attributes or behavior of individuals based on observing that relationship for groups to which the individuals belong.

Reference page(s): 12


What is face validity?Validity asserted by arguing that a measure corresponds closely to the concept it is designed to measure.

Reference page(s): 19
What is factor analysis?A statistical technique useful in the construction of multi-item scales to measure abstract concepts.
What is a Guttman scale?A multi-item measure in which respondents are presented with increasingly difficult measures of approval for an attitude.
What is the Hawthorne Effect?inadvertent measurement of a subject's response to the knowledge that he or she is being studied

Reference page(s): 15


What is an individual-level unit of analysis?when a concept describes a phenomenon at is lowest possible level

Reference page(s): 11
What is an interitem association?A test of the extent to which the scores of several items (such as questions on a survey), each thought to measure the same concept, are the same. Results are displayed in a correlation matrix.
Define level of measurement.The extent or degree to which the values of variables can be compared and mathematically manipulated.
What is measurement?The process by which phenomena are observed systematically and represented by scores or numerals.


What is a multidimensional concept?has two or more distinct groups of empirical characteristics

Reference page(s): 10
What is an operational definition?The rules by which a concept is measured and scores assigned.

Reference page(s): 7
What is a panel study?A cross-sectional study in which measurements of variables are taken on the same units of analysis at multiple points in time.

Reference page(s): 17
What is random measurement error?introduces haphazard, chaotic distortion into the measurement process

Reference page(s): 14


What is a ratio measurement?A measure for which the scores possess the full mathematical properties of the numbers assigned.
Define reliability.The extent to which a measure yields the same results on repeated trials.

Reference page(s): 16
What is semantic differential?A technique for measuring attitudes toward an object in which respondents are presented with a series of opposite adjective pairs.
What is the split-half method?A method of calculating reliability by comparing the results of two equivalent measures made at the same time.

Reference page(s): 18


What is a summation index?A multi-item measure in which individual scores on a set of items are combined to form a summary measure.
What is systematic measurement error?introduces consistent, chronic distortion into an empirical measurement

Reference page(s): 14
What is the test-retest method?A method of calculating reliability by repeating the same measure at two or more points in time.

Reference page(s): 17
What is the unit of analysis?The type of actor (individual, group, institution, nation) specified in a researcher's hypothesis.

Reference page(s): 11


What is validity?The correspondence between a measure and the concept it is supposed to measure.

Reference page(s): 16