What are accretion measures?measures of a phenomena through indirect observation of the accumulation of materials
What is content analysis?a procedure by which verbal, nonquantitative records are transformed into quantitative data
What is a covert observation?observation in which the observer's presence or purpose is kept secret from those being observed
What is direct observation?actual observation of behavior

What is an episodic record?the portion of the written record that is not part of a regular, ongoing record-keeping enterprise
What are erosion measures?measures of phenomena through indirect observation of selective wear of some material
What is a field study?observation in a natural setting
What is indirect observation?observation of physical traces of behavior

What is an informant?person who helps a researcher employing participant observation methods interpret the activities and behavior of the informant and the group to which the informant belongs
What is informed consent?procedures that inform potential research subjects about the proposed research in which they are being asked to participate. The principle that researchers must obtain the freely given consent of human subjects before they participate in a research project
What is an institutional review board (IRB)?panel to which researchers must submit descriptions of proposed research involving human subjects for the purpose of ethics review
What is intercoder reliability?demonstration that multiple analysts, following the same content analysis procedure, agree and obtain the same measurements

What is overt observation?observation in which those being observed are informed of the researcher's presence and purpose
What is participant observation?observation in which the observer becomes a regular participant in the activities of those being observed
What is primary data?data recorded and used by the researcher who is making the observations
What is a running record?the portion of the written record that is enduring and covers an extensive period of time

What is secondary data?data used by a researcher that was not personally collected by that researcher
What is a structured observation?systematic observation and recording of the incidence of specific behaviors
What is an unstructured observation?observation in which all behavior and activities are recorded
What is a written record?documents, reports, statistics, manuscript, and other recorded materials available and useful for empirical research